International logistics
the management of international trade operations
Pierre David

Dnes vráceno
Monografie
ISBN: 978-0-9894906-0-3
ISBN(chybné nebo zrušené): 0-9894906-0-2
Údaj o vydání: 4e
Nakladatelské údaje: Berea : Cicero Books, 2013
Fyzický popis: xxvi, 695 stran : barevné ilustrace ; 28 cm
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Klíčová slova: logistika (management); zahraniční obchod; mezinárodní obchod; procesní management
Poznámka: Terminologický slovník

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                                        Preface	xxiii
1	International	Trade	1
1.1	International Trade Growth............................... 5
1.2	International Trade Milestones........................... 7
1.2.1	The Bretton-Woods Conference....................... 7
1.2.2	The World Trade Organization....................... 8
1.2.3	The Treaty of Rome................................. 8
1.2.4	The Creation of the Euro........................... 9
1.3	Largest Exporting and Importing	Countries................11
1.4	International Trade Drivers..............................14
1.4.1	Cost Drivers ......................................14
1.4.2	Competition Drivers ...............................16
1.4.3	Market Drivers.....................................17
1.4.4	Technolog)'Drivers.................................18
1.5	International Trade Theories.............................18
1.5.1	Theory of Absolute Advantage.......................18
1.5.2	Theory of Comparative Advantage....................20
1.5.3	Factor Endowment Theory............................22
1.5.4	International Product Life Cycle...................24
1.5.5	Cluster Theory.....................................26
1.5.6	Logistics Cluster Theory...........................27
1.6	The International Business Environment...................27
2	International	Supply	Chain Management	33
2.1	Historical Development...................................34
2.1.1	The Early, “Slow" Days.............................34
2.1.2	The Move Toward Speed..............................36
2.1.3	The Emphasis on Customer Satisfaction..............41
2.1.4	The Transformation into a Strategic Advantage ... 44
2.2	Logistics and Supply Chain Management....................46
2.2.1	Logistics..........................................47
2.2.2	Supply Chain Management ...........................47
2.2.3	International Logistics............................48
2.2.4	International Supply Chain Management...............49
2.3	Elements of International Logistics .......................51
2.4	The Economic Importance of Logistics.......................52
2.4.1	Logistics in the United States......................52
2.4.2	Logistics in the World..............................53
2.4.3	International Logistics.............................54
2.5	International Reverse Logistics............................55
3 International Infrastructure	63
3.1	Definitions..................................................64
3.2	Transportation Infrastructure..............................65
3.2.1	Port Infrastructure ................................65
3.2.2	Canals and Waterways Infrastructure.................78
3.2.3	Airport Infrastructure .............................82
3.2.4	Rail Infrastructure.................................85
3.2.5	Road Infrastructure.................................88
3.2.6	Warehousing Infrastructure..........................94
3.3	Communication Infrastructure...............................95
3.3.1	Mail Services.......................................95
3.3.2	Telecommunications Services.........................96
3.3.3	Internet Access.....................................99
3.4	Utilities Infrastructure...................................100
3.4.1	Electricity..........................................100
3.4.2	Water and Sewer......................................101
3.4.3	Energy'Pipelines.....................................102
3.5	Sendees Infrastructure......................................103
3.5.1	Banking Infrastructure...............................103
3.5.2	Logistics Support Infrastructure.....................103
3.6	Legal and Regulatory Infrastructure.........................104
3.6.1	Court Infrastructure ................................104
3.6.2	Intellectual Property Infrastructure.................104
3.6.3	StandardsUnfrastructure..............................105
4 International Methods of Entry	113
4.1	Entry Strategy Factors......................................114
4.2	Indirect Exporting..........................................115
4.2.1	Export Trading Company (ETC).........................116
4.2.2	Export Management Corporation (EMC)..................117
4.2.3	Piggy-Backing........................................119
4.3	Active Exporting............................................120
4.3.1	Agent................................................120
4.3.2	Distributor..........................................122
4.3.3	Additional Issues in the Agent-Distributorship Decision .....................................................124
4.3.4	Marketing Subsidiar^’................................125
4.3.5	Coordinating Direct Export Strategies................126
4.3.6	Foreign Sales Corporation..........................127
4.4	Production Abroad .......................................128
4.4.1	Contract Manufacturing/Subcontracting..............129
4.4.2	Licensing .........................................130
4.4.3	Franchising........................................131
4.4.4	Jointventure.......................................134
4.4.5	Subsidiary.........................................136
4.5	Parallel Imports ........................................139
4.6	Counterfeit Goods........................................140
4.7	Other Issues in Methods of Entry.........................141
4.7.1	Foreign Trade Zones ...*...........................141
4.7.2	Maquiladoras.......................................142
4.7.3	Anti-Bribery Conventions...........................143
5	International Contracts	149
5.1	Lex Mercatoria...........................................150
5.2	International Sales Contracts and the	CISC .............152
5.2.1	Contract Formation.................................154
5.2.2	Creation of the Contract...........................154
5.2.3	Breach of Contract ................................155
5.3	Agency versus Distributorship Legal	Issues...............156
5.3.1	Contract Law versus Labor Law .....................156
5.3.2	Home Government Restrictions ......................157
5.3.3	Other Issues in Agency and Partnership Agreements 158
5.4	Elements of an Agency or Distributor	Contract............159
5.4.1	Contract Language .................................159
5.4.2	Good Faith ........................................159
5.4.3	Force Majeure......................................160
5.4.4	Scope of Appointment...............................160
5.4.5	Territory..........................................161
5.4.6	Corporate Accounts.................................161
5.4.7	Term of Appointment ...............................162
5.4.8	Choice of Law .....................................163
5.4.9	Choice of Forum or Venue ..........................164
5.4.10	Arbitration Clause................................164
5.4.11	Mediation Clause .................................165
5.4.12	Profitability or Commission.......................166
5.4.13	Intellectual Property ............................167
5.4.14	Miscellaneous Other Clauses.......................167
5.5	Termination .............................................169
5.5.1	Just Cause.........................................170
5.5.2	Convenience........................................170
5.6	Arbitration .............................................171
5.7	Mediation................................................173
6	Terms of Trade or Incoterms® Rules	179
6.1	International Commerce Terms.................................180
6.2	Understanding Incoterms Rules ...............................181
6.3	Incoterms Rule Strategy......................................182
6.4	Ex-Works (EXW)...............................................185
6.4.1	Delivery under EXW...............................186
6.4.2	Responsibilities of the	Exporter and	the	Importer	.	.	186
6.5	Free Carrier (FCA)...........................................188
6.5.1	Delivery under FCA...............................189
6.5.2	Responsibilities of the	Exporter and	the	Importer	..189
6.6	Carriage Paid To (CPT).......................................190
6.6.1	Delivery under CPT..................•...............190
6.6.2	Responsibilities of the Exporter and the Importer ..191
6.7	Carriage and Insurance Paid To (CIP) ........................192
6.7.1	Delivery under CIP...............................192
6.7.2	Responsibilities of the	Exporter and	the	Importer	.	.	193
6.8	Delivered At Terminal (DAT) .................................193
6.8.1	Delivery under DAT...............................194
6.8.2	Responsibilities of the	Exporter and	the	Importer	.	.	194
6.9	Delivered At Place (DAP).....................................195
6.9.1	Deliven'under DAP................................195
6.9.2	Responsibilities of the	Exporter and	the	Importer	.	.	196
6.10	Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)...................................197
6.10.1	Delivery under DDP....................................198
6.10.2	Responsibilities of the Exporter and the Importer . . 198
6.11	Free Alongside Ship (FAS)...................................198
6.11.1	Delivery under FAS...................................199
6.11.2	Responsibilities of the Exporter and the Importer . . 200
6.12	Free on Board (FOB).........................................200
6.12.1	Delivery under FOB....................................202
6.12.2	Responsibilities of the Exporter and the Importer . . 202
6.13	Cost and Freiglit(CFR)......................................203
6.13.1	Delivery under CFR....................................204
6.13.2	Responsibilities of the Exporter and the Importer . . 205
6.14	Cost, Insurance, and Freight (CIF) .........................205
6.14.1	Delivery under CIF....................................206
6.14.2	Responsibilities of the Exporter and the Importer . . 208
6.15	Summary' of Incoterms® Responsibilities.....................208
6.16	Common Errors in Incoterms® Rules Usage.....................209
6.16.1	Confusion with Domestic Terms.........................209
6.16.2	Confusion with Older Incoterms® Versions.............210
6.16.3	Improper Use of Correct Incoterms® Rules .........212
6.17	Incoterms Rules as a Marketing Tool .....................212
7	Terms of Payment	217
7.1	International Payment Characteristics....................218
7.2	Alternative Terms of Payment............................220
7.3	Risks	in International Trade............................222
7.3.1	Country Risk......................................223
7.3.2	Commercial Risk...................................224
7.3.3	Exposure..........................................225
7.4	Cash in Advance.........................................226
7.4.1	Definition........................................226
7.4.2	Applicability.....................................226
7.5	Open Account............................................226
7.5.1	Definition........................................226
7.5.2	Applicability.....................................227
7.5.3	Commercial Credit Insurance.......................227
7.5.4	Factoring ........................................228
7.6	Letter	of Credit .......................................229
7.6.1	Definition........................................229
7.6.2	Process ..........................................230
7.6.3	Additional Information ...........................234
7.6.4	Applicability.....................................241
7.7	Additional Types of Letters of Credit..................241
7.7.1	Stand-By Letters of Credit........................241
7.7.2	Transferable Letters	of Credit ...................242
7.7.3	Back-to-Back Letters	of Credit ...................242
7.8	Documentary Collection..................................242
7.8.1	Definition........................................242
7.8.2	Process...........................................243
7.8.3	Drafts ...........................................243
7.8.4	Instruction Letter................................246
7.8.5	Acceptance........................................246
7.8.6	URC 522 ......................................... 247
7.8.7	Applicability.....................................248
7.9	Forfaiting..............................................248
7.10	Purchasing Cards ......................................249
7.11	TradeCard..............................................250
7.12	Bank Guarantees .......................................251
7.12.1	Definition.......................................251
7.12.2	Guarantee Payable on First Demand................252
7.12.3	Guarantees Based upon Documents—Cautions . . . .252
7.12.4	Stand-By Letters of Credit.......................252
7.12.5	Types of Bank Guarantees.........................252
7.13	Terms of Payment as a Marketing Tool...................253
8 Managing Transaction Risks	259
8.1	Currency Used in the Sales Contract......................260
8.1.1	Exporter’s Currency................................264
8.1.2	Importer’s Currency................................264
8.1.3	Third Country’s Currency...........................264
8.1.4	The Special Status of the Euro.....................265
8.2	The System of Currency Exchange Rates....................267
8.2.1	Types of Exchange Rate Quotes .....................267
8.2.2	Types of Currencies................................274
8.3	Theories of Exchange Rate Determinations.................278
8.3.1	Purchasing Power Parity............................278
8.3.2	Fisher Effect......................................280
8.3.3	International Fisher Effect....................... 281
8.3.4	Interest Rate Parity...............................281
8.3.5	Forward Rate as Unbiased Predictor of Spot Rate . . . 283
8.3.6	Entire Predictive Model............................283
8.4	Exchange Rate Forecasting................................283
8.4.1	Technical Forecasting..............................283
8.4.2	Fundamental Forecasting............................284
8.4.3	Market-Based Forecasting...........................285
8.5	Managing Transaction Exposure............................286
8.5.1	Risk Retention.....................................286
8.5.2	Forward-Market Hedges..............................287
8.5.3	Money-Market Hedges ...............................288
8.5.4	Options-Market Hedges .............................290
8.6	International Banking Institutions.......................292
8.6.1	Central National Banks.............................292
8.6.2	International Monetary Fund........................293
8.6.3	Bank for International Settlements ................293
8.6.4	World Bank.........................................293
8.6.5	Ex-Im Bank.........................................294
8.6.6	Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT).......................................294
8.7	Currency of Payment as a Marketing Tool..................294
9 International Commercial Documents	301
9.1	Documentation Requirements...............................302
9.2	Invoices ................................................303
9.2.1	Commercial Invoice.................................303
9.2.2	Pro forma Invoice..................................306
9.2.3	Consular Invoice ..................................307
9.2.4	Specialized Commercial Invoices....................307
9.3	Export Documents.........................................309
9.3.1	Shipper’s Export Declaration.......................309
9.3.2	Export Licenses ...................................311
9.3.3	U.S. Export Controls...............................312
9.3.4	End-Use Certificates................................317
9.3.5	Export Taxes........................................317
9.3.6	Export Quotas.......................................317
9.4	Import Documents...........................................318
9.4.1	Certificate	of Origin........................318
9.4.2	Certificate	of Manufacture........................321
9.4.3	Certificate	of Inspection........................321
9.4.4	Certificate	of Analysis........................325
9.4.5	Phyto-Sanitary Certificate..........................325
9.4.6	Certificate	of Certification........................325
9.4.7	Certificate	of Free Sale........................326
9.4.8	Import License......................................329
9.4.9	Consular Invoice....................................329
9.4.10	Certificate of Insurance...........................329
9.5	Transportation Documents ..................................331
9.5.1	Ocean Bill of Lading................................331
9.5.2	Uniform Bill of Lading..............................333
9.5.3	Intermodal Bill of Lading...........................333
9.5.4	Air Waybill ........................................335
9.5.5	Charter Parties ....................................335
9.5.6	Packing List........................................336
9.5.7	Shipper’s Letter of Instruction.....................337
9.5.8	Shipments of Dangerous Goods........................337
9.5.9	Manifest............................................339
9.6	Electronic Data Interchange................................340
9.6.1	Proprietary Commercial Electronic Data Interchange 340
9.6.2	Network Electronic Data Interchange.................341
9.7	Document Preparation as a Marketing Tool...................342
0 International Insurance	349
10.1	Complexity of International Insurance ..................350
10.1.1	Particularities of International Insurance........350
10.1.2	Insurance Vocabulary...............................351
10.2	Perils Faced by International Shipments ..................353
10.2.1	Perils Faced in Ocean Transportation...............354
10.2.2	Perils Associated with Air Shipments...............375
10.3	Insurable Interest .......................................377
10.4	Risk Management ..........................................379
10.4.1	Risk Retention.....................................379
10.4.2	Risk Transfer......................................380
10.4.3	Mixed Approach.....................................381
10.5	Insurance Policies........................................382
10.5.1	Purchasing Marine Cargo Insurance..................382
10.5.2	Marine Cargo Insurance Policy Coverages............383
10.5.3	Other Forms of Marine Insurance....................393
10.5.4	Elements of an Airfreight Policy...................394
10.6	Filing an Insurance Claim ...............................394
10.6.1	Notification.......................................395
10.6.2	Protection of the Damaged Cargo....................396
10.6.3	Filing of a Claim..................................396
10.6.4	Carrier Liability Limits...........................398
10.7	Lloyd’s..................................................399
10.7.1	Principles.........................................399
10.7.2	Lloyd’s in International Logistics.................401
10.8	Commercial Credit Insurance..............................401
10.8.1	Risks Involved.....................................402
10.8.2	Risk Management Alternatives.......................402
10.8.3	Insurance Policies Available.......................402
11 International Ocean Transportation	413
11.1	Types of Service.........................................414
11.2	Size of Vessels..........................................415
11.2.1	Deadweight Tonnage and Cubic Capacity..............415
11.2.2	Gross and Net Tonnage .............................416
11.2.3	Displacement.......................................416
11.2.4	Plimsoll Mark and Load Lines.......................417
11.2.5	Size Categories....................................419
11.3	Types of Vessels.........................................421
11.3.1	Containerships.....................................423
11.3.2	Roll-On/Roll-Off Ships.............................426
11.3.3	Breakbulk or General-Merchandise Ships.............428
11.3.4	Combination Ships..................................429
11.3.5	Product, Chemical, and Crude Carriers..............430
11.3.6	Dry-Bulk Carriers .................................434
11.3.7	Gas Carriers.......................................437
11.4	Flag.....................................................439
11.5	Liability Conventions....................................445
11.6	Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers.....................448
11.7	Security Requirements....................................448
11.7.1	Cargo Inspections..................................448
11.7.2	Advance Shipping Notifications ....................449
12 International Air Transportation	455
12.1	Cargo Airlines, Airports, and Markets....................457
12.2	Types of Sendee..........................................459
12.2.1	Air Mail Sendees...................................460
12.2.2	Express Airfreight Services........................460
12.2.3	Scheduled Airfreight Services......................461
12.2.4	Charter Airfreight Sendees ........................462
12.2.5	Leased Cargo Aircraft Services.....................463
12.2.6	Airfreight Forwarder Services......................463
12.3	Types of Aircraft........................................464
12.3.1	Passenger Aircraft................................464
12.3.2	Combination Aircraft..............................466
12.3.3	Quick-Change Aircraft.............................467
12.3.4	Airfreighters.....................................468
12.4	Airfreight Tariffs......................................473
12.5	International Regulations ..............................478
12.6	Environmental Issues and Sustainability.................479
12.7	International Air Cargo Security........................480
12.7.1	Transportation Security Administration............480
12.7.2	Advance Manifest Rules for Air Carriers...........481
12.7.3	Certified Cargo Screening Program ................481
12.7.4	Air Carriers and C-TPAT...........................482
12.7.5	Air Cargo Security Requirements for Other Countries 483
13	International Land and Multimodal Transportation	489
13.1	Truck Transportation.....................................491
13.2	Rail Transportation.....................................496
13.3	Intermodal Transportation...............................501
13.3.1	Types of Seagoing Containers......................504
13.3.2	Land Bridges......................................510
13.3.3	Liability Issues..................................513
13.3.4	Aircraft Containers...............................514
13.4	Freight Forwarders .....................................516
13.5	Project Cargo...........................................516
13.6	Alternative Means of Transportation ....................517
13.6.1	Pipelines.........................................517
13.6.2	Barges............................................519
13.7	Ground Transportation Security..........................520
14	Packaging for Export	527
14.1	Packaging Functions.....................................529
14.2	Packaging Objectives....................................530
14.3	Ocean Cargo ............................................531
14.3.1	Full-Container-Load (FCL) Cargo...................531
14.3.2	Less-than-Container-Load (LCL) Cargo .............537
14.3.3	Breakbulk Cargo...................................539
14.3.4	Wood Requirements.................................545
14.3.5	Markings..........................................546
14.4	Air Transport...........................................549
14.4.1	Containers .......................................549
14.4.2	Packaging Materials...............................549
14.4.3	Markings..........................................550
14.5	Road and Rail Transport.................................550
14.6	Security ...............................................554
14.7	Hazardous Cargo.........................................556
14.8	Refrigerated Goods......................................557
14.9	Domestic Retail Packaging Issues........................558
14.9.1	Size..............................................559
14.9.2	Legal Issues......................................560
14.9.3	Storage and Transportation Environment............560
14.10	Packaging as a Marketing Tool..........................561
15	International Logistics Security	567
15.1	The Impact of a Significant Disruption in International Logistics ......................................................570
15.2	International Organizations.............................571
15.2.1	International Maritime Organization ..............571
15.2.2	World Customs Organization........................573
15.2.3	International Chamber of Commerce.................574
15.2.4	National Governments’ Involvement.................575
15.3	The United States’ Approach.............................576
15.3.1	Interdiction......................................577
15.3.2	Customs-Trade Partnership Against	Terrorism . . .580
15.3.3	Maritime Transportation Security Act..............582
15.3.4	Security and Accountability for Even’	Port........583
15.3.5	The Transportation Workers’ Identification Credential583
15.3.6	Container Security Initiative.....................584
15.3.7	Free and Secure Trade.............................584
15.3.8	Importer Security Filing..........................585
15.4	The European Union’s Programs...........................586
15.4.1	Authorized Economic Operator .....................586
15.4.2	Customs Security Programme........................587
15.5	Other Countries’ Approach ..............................587
15.6	Corporate Efforts.......................................588
16	Customs Clearance	597
16.1	Duty ...................................................598
16.1.1	Classification ...................................598
16.1.2	Valuation.........................................603
16.1.3	Rules of Origin...................................604
16.1.4	Tariffs...........................................607
16.1.5	Dumping ..........................................611
16.1.6	Other Taxes.......................................612
16.1.7	Value-Added Tax ..................................613
16.2	Non-Tariff Barriers.....................................614
16.2.1	Quotas ...........................................615
16.2.2	Adherence to National Standards ..................618
16.2.3	Other Non-tariff Barriers.........................620
16.2.4	Pre-shipment Inspections..........................621
16.3	Customs Clearing Process................................622
16.3.1	General Process...................................622
16.3.2	Customs Brokers ..................................623
16.3.3	Customs Bonds .................................623
16.3.4	Reasonable Care................................625
16.3.5	Required Documentation ........................625
16.3.6	Required Markings .............................626
16.3.7	Merchandise Visas .............................626
16.3.8	Duty Drawbacks.................................627
16.4	Foreign Trade Zones..................................628
17	Developing a Competitive Advantage	637
17.1	Communication Challenges..............................638
17.2	International English................................640
17.3	Special English......................................642
17.4	Metric System........................................644
17.5	Cultural Sensitivity ................................648
17.6	Specific Advice......................................649
17.6.1	Terms of Payment...............................649
17.6.2	Currency of Payment............................650
17.6.3	Incoterms® Rule Choice.........................650
17.6.4	Document Preparation...........................651
17.6.5	Packaging......................................651
Glossary	655
Index	684
                                    
Detail
Název pole Obsah pole
Autor David, Pierre A. Autor
Údaje o názvu International logistics : the management of international trade operations / Pierre David
Variantní název Management of international trade operations
ISBN 978-0-9894906-0-3 0-9894906-0-2 (brožováno)
Údaje o vydání 4e
Nakladatelské údaje, údaje o vytvoření díla, autorská práva Berea : Cicero Books, 2013
Klíčová slova logistika (management)
Klíčová slova zahraniční obchod
Klíčová slova mezinárodní obchod
Klíčová slova procesní management
Fyzický popis xxvi, 695 stran : barevné ilustrace ; 28 cm
Všeobecná poznámka Terminologický slovník
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