Fundamentals of information systems
Ralph M. Stair, George W. Reynolds

Dnes vráceno
Monografie
ISBN: 978-1-337-09753-6
ISBN(chybné nebo zrušené): 1-337-09753-5
Původce: Reynolds, George Walter, Autor
Údaj o vydání: Ninth edition
Nakladatelské údaje: Boston : Cengage Learning, 2017
Fyzický popis: xix, 503 stran : ilustrace (převážně barevné) ; 28 cm
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Klíčová slova: informační systémy; informační technologie; information systems; information technology
Poznámka: Terminologický slovník

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                                        Contents
PART 1
1
PART 2
2
Preface ??
Information Systems in Perspective 1
An Introduction to Information Systems in Organizations 2
An Introduction to Information Systems 4 Data, Information, and Knowledge 4 The Value of Information 6 Characteristics of Quality Information 6 What Is an Information System? 7 Three Fundamental Types of Information Systems 8 Information Systems in Organizations 10 Value Chains 11 Change in the Organization 13 Soft Side of Implementing Change 15 Careers in Information Systems 21 Finding a Job in IS 29 Certification 30
CASE ONE: BMW: Automaker Competes on the Digital Front 38 CASE TWO: Railroads Struggle to Implement Positive Train Control 39
Information Technology Concepts 43 Hardware and Software 44
Anatomy of a Computer 46
Processor 46 Memory 48
Secondary Data Storage Devices 49 Enterprise Storage Options 51 Input and Output Devices 52 Output Devices 57 Computer System Types 60 Mobile Computers 6l
Thin Clients, Desktops, and Workstations 62 Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers 64 Server Farms, Data Centers, and Green Computing 66 Server Farms 66 Data Center 67 Green Computing 67
vii
Vili CONTENTS
An Overview of Software 69 Software Sphere of Influence 69
Systems Software 71 Operating Systems 71 Utility Programs 81 Middleware 81
Application Software 83 Overview of Application Software 84 Personal Application Software 85 Workgroup Application Software 91 Enterprise Application Software 91 Programming Languages 92
Software Issues and Trends 93 Software Bugs 93 Copyrights and Licenses 94 Open-Source Software 94 Software Upgrades 95 Global Software Support 95
CASE ONE: Vivobarefoot Upgrades Technology Infrastructure 105
CASE TWO: Société de transport de Montréal (STM) Implements Innovative Mobile App 106
3 Database Systems and Big Data 110
Data Fundamentals 112
Hierarchy of Data 113
Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys 113
The Database Approach 115
Data Modeling and Database Characteristics 117 Data Modeling 117 Relational Database Model 119 Data Cleansing 122
Relational Database Management Systems (DBMSs) 124 SQL Databases 124 Database Activities 125 Database Administration 130 Popular Database Management Systems 131 Using Databases with Other Software 132
Big Data 133
Characteristics of Big Data 134 Sources of Big Data 134 Big Data Uses 135 Challenges of Big Data 136 Data Management 137
Technologies Used to Process Big Data 140 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Lakes 140 NoSQL Databases 142 Hadoop 144 In-Memory Databases 145
CASE ONE: WholeWorldBand: Digital Recording Studio 152
CASE TWO: Mercy’s Big Data Project Aims to Boost Operations 153
CONTENTS
ix
PART 3
5
Networks and Cloud Computing 156
Network Fundamentals 159
Network Topology 159 Network Types 160 Client/Server Systems 162 Channel Bandwidth 162 Communications Media 163 Communications Hardware 169 Communications Software 169
The Internet and World Wide Web 171 How the Internet Works 173 Accessing the Internet 175 How the Web Works 177 Web Programming Languages 179 Web Services 180
Developing Web Content and Applications 180 Internet and Web Applications 181 Intranets and Extranets 192
The Internet of Things 194
Cloud Computing 197 Public Cloud Computing 199 Private Cloud Computing 201 Hybrid Cloud Computing 201 Autonomie Computing 201
CASE ONE: Cloud Helps Fight Cancer 209
CASE TWO: Globacom Invests in Its Mobile Network Infrastructure in Africa 210
Business Information Systems 213 Electronic Commerce and Enterprise Systems 214
An Introduction to Electronic Commerce 216 Business-to-Business E-Commerce 217 Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce 217 Consumer-to-Consumer E-Commerce 219 E-Government 219 Mobile Commerce 220
Advantages of Electronic and Mobile Commerce 221 E-Commerce Challenges 222
Electronic and Mobile Commerce Applications 224 Manufacturing 224 Marketing 225 Advertising 225 Bartering 226 Retargeting 227 Price Comparison 228 Couponing 228 Investment and Finance 228 Banking 228
Technology Infrastructure Required to Support E-Commerce and M-Commerce 229
x
CONTENTS
Hardware 230
Web Server Software 231
E-Commerce Software 231
Mobile Commerce Hardware and Software 231
Electronic Payment Systems 231
Transaction Processing Systems 235 Traditional Transaction Processing Methods and Objectives 236 Transaction Processing Systems for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises 240 Transaction Processing Activities 241 Enterprise Systems 244 Enterprise Resource Planning 245 Advantages of ERP 245 Leading ERP Systems 247 Customer Relationship Management 249 Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) 252
Overcoming Challenges in Implementing Enterprise Systems 256 Hosted Software Model for Enterprise Software 257 CASE ONE: Facebook Moves into E-Commerce 265 CASE TWO: Dunkin’ Donuts Prepares for Rapid Growth 266
6	Business Intelligence and Analytics 270
What Are Analytics and Business Intelligence? 272 Benefits Achieved from BI and Analytics 273 The Role of a Data Scientist 274
Components Required for Effective BI and Analytics 275
Business Intelligence and Analytics Tools 276
Spreadsheets 276
Reporting and Querying Tools 277
Data Visualization Tools 277
Online Analytical Processing 279
Drill-Down Analysis 280
Linear Regression 281
Data Mining 282
Dashboards 283
Self-Service Analytics 285
CASE ONE: Analytics Used to Predict Patients Likely to Be Readmitted 292 CASE TWO: Sunny Delight Improves Profitability with a Self-Service BI Solution 293
7	Knowledge Management and Specialized Information Systems 296
What Is Knowledge Management? 298 Knowledge Management Applications and Associated Benefits 300 Best Practices for Selling and Implementing a KM Project 301 Technologies That Support KM 303 Overview of Artificial Intelligence 309 Artificial Intelligence in Perspective 310 Nature of Intelligence 310 Brain-Computer Interface 312 Expert Systems 312
PART 4
8
PART 5
9
CONTENTS xi
Robotics 316
Vision Systems 317
Natural Language Processing 317
Learning Systems 318
Neural Networks 318
Other Artificial Intelligence Applications 319
Multimedia and Virtual Reality 320
Overview of Multimedia 321 Overview of Virtual Reality 323 Interface Devices 324 Forms of Virtual Reality 325 Virtual Reality Applications 325 Other Specialized Systems 327 Assistive Technology Systems 327 Game Theory 328 Informatics 329
CASE ONE: The NASA Knowledge Map 337
CASE TWO: Doctor on Demand Enables Physicians to Make House Calls 338
System Development 343
System Acquisition and Development 344
Buy versus Build 346
Waterfall System Development Process 348 System Investigation 349 System Analysis 356 System Design 363 Construction ?68 Integration and Testing 371 Implementation 372 System Operation and Maintenance 376
Agile Development 381 Buying Off-the-Shelf Software 384 Package Evaluation Phase 385 Finalize Contract 387 Integration and Testing 388 I mplementation 388
CASE ONE: Etsy Uses DevOps for Rapid Deployment 397
CASE TWO: British Telecom Spreading Agile Development across the Globe 398
Information Systems in Business and Society 401 Cybercrime and Information System Security 402
The Threat Landscape 404 Why Computer Incidents Are So Prevalent 404 Types of Exploits 407
Federal Laws for Prosecuting Computer Attacks 418
Implementing Secure, Private, Reliable Computing 419
Risk Assessment 419
Establishing a Security Policy 421
Educating Employees and Contract Workers 421
Prevention 422
Detection 425
Response 426
Using a Managed Security Service Provider (MSSP) 428 Computer Forensics 428
CASE ONE: Fairplay Turns to a Managed Security Service Provider 435 CASE TWO: Sony’s Response to North Korea’s Cyberattack 436
Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues of Information Systems 440
Computer Waste and Mistakes 442 Computer Waste 442 Computer-Related Mistakes 443 Preventing Computer-Related Waste and Mistakes 445 Privacy Issues 448 Privacy and the Federal Government 448 Privacy at Work 451 Privacy and Email 452 Privacy and Instant Messaging 453 Privacy and Personal Sensing Devices 453 Privacy and the Internet 454 Privacy and Internet Libel Concerns 455 Privacy and Fairness in Information Use 456 Privacy and Filtering and Classifying Internet Content 456 Corporate Privacy Policies 457 Individual Efforts to Protect Privacy 459 Work Environment 460 Health Concerns 461
Avoiding Health and Environmental Problems 461 Ethical Issues in Information Systems 464 What Is Ethics? 464 Codes of Ethics 466
CASE ONE: FBI Orders Apple to Unlock iPhone 473 CASE TWO: Protecting Health Care Privacy 474
Glossary 478 Subject Index 48?
Company Index 501
                                    
Detail
Název pole Obsah pole
Autor Stair, Ralph M., 1945- Autor
Údaje o názvu Fundamentals of information systems / Ralph M. Stair, George W. Reynolds
Původce Reynolds, George Walter, 1944- Autor
ISBN 978-1-337-09753-6 (brožováno) 1-337-09753-5
Údaje o vydání Ninth edition
Nakladatelské údaje, údaje o vytvoření díla, autorská práva Boston : Cengage Learning, 2017
Klíčová slova informační systémy
Klíčová slova informační technologie
Klíčová slova information systems
Klíčová slova information technology
Fyzický popis xix, 503 stran : ilustrace (převážně barevné) ; 28 cm
Všeobecná poznámka Terminologický slovník
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